Tag Archives: Woehammer

Clausewitz Wargames Intro

As the YouTube channel is going to become busier over the next few months with playtest etc I thought it was time to have a professional looking intro to the videos.

If my IT skills are proficient enough this should also start appearing past videos as of next week.





Austrian Artillery Units

Artillery Officer, Gunner and Train Driver 1809-1813, by Ottenfeld

Austrian artillery units before the Napoleonic Wars were held in high regard by the other nations of the world and were often thought of as the best artillery units. Men volunteered for the artillery units of Austria and were not recruited, all the rank and file were able to read and write in German. Enlistments were for 14 years in the artillery, while a member of the Austrian infantry was enlisted for only 6 years.

Several French generals including Massena admired the Austrian artillery and its professionalism, and the Austrians had both gunpowder and ammunition of higher quality than that of the other nations. However, while the Austrian artillery units were extremely professional and benefited from higher quality supplies the French and many other nations artillery had a larger calibre and further reach than the Austrian weapons.

The accuracy of Austrian artillery far appeared to be superior to that of the other major nations. At the Battle of Leipzig in 1813 a duel occurred between 12 Austrian guns and 21 Saxon and French guns near Paunsdorf. After 30 minutes of fire and despite being outnumbered almost 2 to 1 the Austrian gunners had lost six of their guns while the Saxons and French had lost seven.

www.napoleonguide.com has a very handy table showing the different ranges of the Napoleonic guns of each nation at the time. I’ve summarised this below into the 1/5300 basic scale for Clausewitz.

WeaponMaximum RangeEffective Range
3 Pounder Cannon16 cm8 cm
6 Pounder Cannon17 cm9 cm
12 Pounder Cannon21 cm12 cm
7 Pounder Howitzer23 cm12 cm
Austrian Artillery Ranges at 1/5300 scale

Unit Attributes

Austrian Artillery Unit Card

Special Rules

Artillery – When in melee this unit halves its combat dice.







First of all, before I begin I’d like to apologise. As you may have noticed I’ve been a littl might on posts recently. There are a number of reasons for this, having a daughter under the age of two who acts like a gremlin after midnight, and studying for exams. So I hope you’ll forgive me!

I have enlisted some help however, Lehann Smith is my primary play tester who has been kind enough to test the rules I concoct over and over again. His support has been fantastic over the last couple of months and his thoughts and input have kept the rules sensible. As such I’ve added him to the site as an author so that he can share his gaming experiences with you.

Lehann has been particularly busy this weekend setting up a Discord Community for Clausewitz. A place where we can discuss the rules one on one and in groups and play test games together on a remote basis using programmes such as tabletop simulator. They’ll also be a section where you can make suggestions for rules or find a list of suppliers for different scales of Napoleonic Wargaming.

If I’ve done this correctly then you should see a link below to join our small little group on Discord.


I’m hoping that once the first draft of the rules are published the community will grow exponentially.

So what the plans?

Well coming up in the near future you should see articles start to appear on the website in regards to the factions, their units and the abilities they can use. You’ll hopefully also see the first draft of the points system being published once these factions have been finalised.

The first draft of the rule book is still in development. I know I said end of September but it’s much harder to write than I first thought!

In the long term there are also ideas for an accompanying app for the game so that you can more easily track the status of the units in game and build army lists.

Plus lots more (I’ve a list as long as my arm of things that need to be written!).

So again, I’d like to thank Lehann for his hard work and I’m looking forward to working with (and gaming against) him in the future!

Game Choices

Initially when I started writing these rules I imagined a set of rules to simply play historical scenarios. To an extent this is still my intention, however having read some of the comments from various people I’ve decided to expand this some what.


There will be a points system which will allow players to create pick up and play games where the forces are evenly matched.

I’ve already laid the basic ground work for the math behind the points and so these should be fairly simple to produce once we get to that stage.


Anyone who has played the Polemos system for Napoleonic will be familiar with the randomised army selection process. This will also be a feature for a Clausewitz, enabling players to choose how many generals they would like and then having a random number of battalions, squadrons and artillery units based on this.


A scenario has already been written for the Battle of Rolica and this should be published either inside the rule book once it becomes available or as a downloadable file from this website.


I’m also considering writing an AI system which would be available either through an app or via a page on this website. More news on this in the future.


A campaign systems will also be written further down the line and should be available also with the single player rule set.


But these are all future ideas and at present the sole purpose is to make sure that the rule mechanics work, are reflective of the period and are not too difficult to master.

I’m currently working on making sure that the Command and Control is going to be suitable to the time period and fun to play.

Faction Focus: Portugal


1801 – War of the Oranges

In 1800, First Consul Bonaparte and his ally, the Spanish prime-minister and Generalissimo Manuel de Godoy, ultimately demanded Portugal, the last British ally on the continent, to break her alliance with Britain. Portugal refused to cede, and, in April 1801, French troops arrived in the country. They were bolstered by Spanish troops under the command of Manuel de Godoy. Godoy had, under his command, the Spanish Army of Extremadura, with five divisions.

The Spanish attack to Portugal started on the early morning of the 20 May, and focused on the Portuguese border region that included the main Garrison Town and Fortifications of Elvas and the smaller fortified towns of Campo Maior, Olivença (Olivenza in Spanish) and Juromenha. The main force of the Spanish Army advanced to Elvas, while two divisions advanced to Campo Maior and another division advanced to Olivença and Juromenha. Without having their fortifications complete and defended only by a few hundred soldiers, most of the militias, Olivença and nearby Juromenha quickly surrendered to the Spanish forces. The Portuguese garrison of Campo Maior – under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Dias Azevedo – resisted the assault for 17 days, forcing the Spanish to maintain two entire divisions in its siege. The main Spanish force – under the direct command of Godoy – tried to assault Elvas but was easily repelled by the strong Portuguese garrison commanded by General Francisco de Noronha. The Spanish troops then withdrew to a safe distance from the fortress, with Godoy not daring to attack it again until the end of the war. The war entered in a stalemate, with most of the Spanish forces hold in sieges of fortresses and the rest not being able to face the blockade made by the main core of the Portuguese Army, in order to advance further inside Portugal. Despite this, Godoy picked oranges from the outside of Elvas and sent them to the Queen of Spain with the message that he would proceed to Lisbon. Thus, the conflict became known as the “War of the Oranges”.

On 6 June 1801 Portugal agreed to the tenets of the Treaty of Badajoz. Portugal agreed to close its ports to English ships, to give commercial concessions to France, to cede Olivenza to Spain and to pay an indemnity. On 29 September 1801 Portugal agreed to both maintaining the tenets of the Treaty of Badajoz and the alterations made to it, which were all embodied within the Treaty of Madrid.

In response, from July 1801 until the signing of the Peace of Amiens in 1802, a British force of 3,500 men under Colonel William Henry Clinton occupied the Portuguese island of Madeira in the North Atlantic Ocean. Intended to forestall any French or Spanish attack on the island, the occupation took place with the tacit consent of the Portuguese.

1807 – Invasion of Portugal

The Invasion of Portugal (19–30 November 1807) saw an Imperial French corps under Jean-Andoche Junot and Spanish military troops invade the Kingdom of Portugal, which was headed by its Prince Regent João of Bragança. The military operation resulted in the almost bloodless occupation of Portugal. The French and Spanish presence was challenged by the Portuguese people and by the United Kingdom in 1808. The invasion marked the start of the Peninsular War.

Threatened by a humiliating ultimatum from Napoleon, the Portuguese government acceded to most of the demands of the French emperor. Nevertheless, Napoleon ordered Junot to commence the invasion, with the cooperation of three divisions from the Kingdom of Spain. Paralyzed by fear and indecision, the Portuguese authorities offered no resistance. Junot occupied Lisbon on 30 November 1807 to find that João and many of the leading families had left for Brazil aboard the Portuguese fleet. The French quickly occupied the entire country and appropriated or disbanded the Portuguese army. The following year saw the Portuguese revolt against their occupiers. The next action was the Battle of Évora in July 1808.


The Anglo-Portuguese Army was the combined British and Portuguese army that participated in the Peninsular War, under the command of Arthur Wellesley. The Army is also referred to as the British-Portuguese Army and, in Portuguese, as the Exército Anglo-Luso or the Exército Anglo-Português.

The Anglo-Portuguese Army was established with the British Army deployed to the Iberian Peninsula under the command of General Arthur Wellesley, and the Portuguese Army rebuilt under the leadership of British General William Beresford and the Portuguese War Secretary Miguel Pereira Forjaz. The new Portuguese battalions were supplied with British equipment, trained to British standards and thoroughly re-organised. Incompetent or corrupt officers were cashiered and appropriate replacements were appointed or promoted from amongst promising Non-commissioned officers.

On 22 April 1809, Wellesley became Commander-in-Chief of the British Army in the Peninsula, replacing General Cradock, whose assessment of the military situation the British government found too pessimistic. At the same time he was appointed by the Portuguese Government as Commander-in-Chief of the Portuguese Army. He then came to have the two armies under his command, transforming them into a single integrated army.

The Army was organised into divisions, most of them including mixed British-Portuguese units. Usually, each one had two British and one Portuguese brigades. In the elite Light Division, the brigades themselves were mixed, each including two British light infantry and one Portuguese Caçadores battalions.

The list belows shows all the Portuguese units that were involved in the Napoleonic Wars.


  • 1st Infantry Regiment (Lippe)
  • 2nd Infantry Regiment (Lagos)
  • 3rd Infantry Regiment (1st Olivença)
  • 4th Infantry Regiment (Freire)
  • 5th Infantry Regiment (1st Elvas)
  • 6th Infantry Regiment (1st Porto)
  • 7th Infantry Regiment (1st Setúbal)
  • 8th Infantry Regiment (Castelo de Vide)
  • 9th Infantry Regiment (Viana)
  • 10th Infantry Regiment (Lisbon)
  • 11th Infantry Regiment (Penamacor)
  • 12th Infantry Regiment (Chaves)
  • 13th Infantry Regiment (1st Peniche)
  • 14th Infantry Regiment (Tavira)
  • 15th Infantry Regiment (2nd Olivença)
  • 16th Infantry Regiment (1st Vieira Teles)
  • 17th Infantry Regiment (2nd Setúbal)
  • 18th Infantry Regiment (2nd Porto)
  • 19th Infantry Regiment (Cascais)
  • 20th Infantry Regiment (Campo Maior)
  • 21st Infantry Regiment (Valença)
  • 22nd Infantry Regiment (Serpa)
  • 23rd Infantry Regiment (1st Almeida)
  • 24th Infantry Regiment (Bragança)


  • 1st Cavalry Regiment (Alcântara)
  • 2nd Cavalry Regiment (Moura)
  • 3rd Cavalry Regiment (Olivença)
  • 4th Cavalry Regiment (Meclemburgo)
  • 5th Cavalry Regiment (Évora)
  • 6th Cavalry Regiment (Bragança)
  • 7th Cavalry Regiment (Cais)
  • 8th Cavalry Regiment (Elvas)
  • 9th Cavalry Regiment (Chaves)
  • 10th Cavalry Regiment (Santarém)
  • 11th Cavalry Regiment (Almeida)
  • 12th Cavalry Regiment (Miranda)


  • 1st Artillery Regiment (Regiment of the Court)
  • 2nd Artillery Regiment (Algarve)
  • 3rd Artillery Regiment (Alentejo)
  • 4th Artillery Regiment (Porto)
  • Artillery Regiment of the Army

Caçador Battalions

  • 1st Caçador Battalion (Regiment of Volunteers of Portalegre)
  • 2nd Caçador Battalion (Transtagana Legion)
  • 3rd Caçador Battalion (Caçador Company of Vila Real)
  • 4th Caçador Battalion (Caçador Battalion of Beira)
  • 5th Caçador Battalion (Transtagana Legion)
  • 6th Caçador Battalion (Caçador Battalion of Porto)
  • 7th Caçador Battalion (1st Battalion of Loyal Lusitanian Legion)
  • 8th Caçador Battalion (2nd Battalion of Loyal Lusitanian Legion)
  • 9th Caçador Battalion (Remnants of the Loyal Lusitanian Legion)
  • 10th Caçador Battalion (Caçador Battalion of Aveiro)
  • 11th Caçador Battalion (Caçador Battalion of Feira)
  • 12th Caçador Battalion (Caçador Battalion of Ponte de Lima)


My initial thoughts are to split the Portuguese lists into pre and post 1809. Post 1809 included the Caçador Battalions and the Portugues Army was essentially combined with the British.

This would in turn mean that British forces will need to be split between periods where the Portuguese were not included (e.g. The Hundred Days) and periods they were.

I’d like to know others thoughts on this as well and in particular any rules you think should be included for particular Portuguese units.



Special Rules

Now that many of the mechanics are in place my next step is to start creating some special rules which individual units can use to differentiate themselves from other units.

This will allow us to give certain units an element of individuality, such as the old guard, guerillas or the Rifles for example.

We’re also possibly going to need rules for each faction involved to represent that countries personality. These rules can’t be too powerful but have to give enough to give some uniqueness.

Let’s start by creating some rules which can be attached to units once we start looking at factions.

I have a number of rules in my head which may be applied to individual units or to factions. I’m going to list them below and then break down what each one does.

  • Sharpshooters – re-roll one ‘Fire!’ dice
  • Volley Fire – one additional ‘Steady’ dice
  • Brave – re-roll one morale dice
  • El Bruch – Can move across impassable terrain as if it were difficult.
  • Merciless – may re-roll one combat dice when in combat.
  • Stoic – Automatically passes the first morale test of the game they’re required to take.
  • Steady – may re-roll one ‘Steady’ dice.

I’m open to other suggestions I’ve not yet thought of that you may feel may suit a particular unit once we come around to building the army lists.


Revision to Artillery

Artillery had previous been using a firing dice for each weapon on the base and these were imply using a 6+ to hit at long range and a 5+ to hit at short range.

However after the blood bath of the first test game I’m having to revise this to make artillery less powerful.

Therefore I’m going to implement a ‘Steady’ roll which functions on exactly the same manner as the roll for hand weapons. This Steady roll will also require a 5+ before the weapons are able to fire.

This should decrease the artillery effectiveness and still allow it to fire each action.


Light Infantry

I wanted to cover light infantry and their like briefly as I’ve already covered ‘true’ Skirmishers such as the rifles, Jaegers and Grenzers.

Light Infantry are slightly different, in that they could deploy companies in skirmish formation but their name light infantry was essentially in name only by the time the Napoleonic Wars started. Napoleonic Wargaming on YouTube has an excellent explanation of these troops on his video ‘Napoleonic skirmishing Light Infantry‘.

That being said I would like to give ‘light’ units a role in the game itself that encourages players to take them in matched play battles.

Therefore for each light infantry battalion on the players roster they will be allowed one marker for the deployment phase, a brief test of which is shown here. Units such as Grenzers, Jaegers, Legers etc will also contribute to the number of deployment markers a player can use in the deployment phase.

A few people have also commented that they feel uncertain about Light Cavalry skirmishing during a battle and I’m inclined to agree.

Therefore light cavalry will be unable to skirmish but they will also be able to contribute to the deployment markers at the beginning of the battle.

As always, I do love getting to hear peoples comments and suggestions, so please keep them coming and help me improve this game!

Make a Donation!

A donation of any size to Clausewitz will help this become a reality! All money received will be used to improve the website and for future publication.




I’m going to take the weekend off from rule writing and have a rest this weekend (I may even paint some models!), but there will be a big announcement early next week!

In the meantime the keen eyes among you may have recently noticed the name Clausewitz popping up here and there.

I couldn’t keep going with the name “Writing a Wargame” and so had to adopt something else that was both shorter and in keeping with the period. My first thoughts were either “Vive le France!” or “Coup d’Oeil”, but in the end I settled on Clausewitz.

Who is Clausewitz?

Mr Clausewitz

Carl von Clausewitz was a Prussian general and military theorist who stressed the psychological and political aspects of war. His most notable work “Vom Kriege” (On War) was unfinished at his death.

For more information I would direct you to the following sources:

His most telling quotes are, (in my opinion) are “There are very few men-and they are the exceptions-who are able to think and feel beyond the present moment” and “…as man under pressure tends to give in to physical and intellectual weakness, only great strength of will can lead to the objective.”.

With morale being such an important part of the game mechanics it felt suitable that the name Clausewitz should be there on the front.

Anyway that’s it for me until Monday for now. I’m off for a rest over the weekend. But, please check back next week for my announcement!


A donation to Clausewitz of any small amount, will help the game become a reality!



Game Test 3 – Deployment Phase

I tested a deployment phase the same as that featured in Chain of Command by TooFatLardies as recommended by a number of people on Reddit.

Deployment Phase Test

I’m pleased with the results so far, it does need tightening up however. My initial thoughts are:

  • You have a number of markers representative of the number of Light Infantry and Light Cavalry units in your force for the battle.
  • Units come on at a certain point on the board, players take it in turns to move all their units onto the battlefield.
  • Once all units are at the entry point, players take it in turns to move the units 15cm at a time to claim as large a deployment zone as possible.
  • Movement is 15cm regardless of terrain (apart from being unable to cross rivers without using a bridge or ford).

Let me know your thoughts and subscribe below to get a notification on my latest posts.


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