Tag Archives: 3mm Wargaming

Test Units (WIP)

I’ve started painting up some test bases.

British Regiments

These are test British Regiments, the front two regiments are the 5th (front left) and 48th (front right) regiments of foot and mouth.

I’ve initially based them on 40mm X 30mm bases. There are also dice holders on the units, initially I’ve placed two on each base. One for the formation and one to denote the number of firing dice. I may change this to three holders though and have two for strength and one for formations.

I also may yet narrow the bases to 40mm X 20mm so that the brigade isn’t too bulky to the rear.


Strength Indicator

There is one benefit/disbenefit to publishing my thought processes on rules creation via this blog that I’ve come across. It is clear to see for everyone the errors that are creeping in when you develop more and more of the game. Strength is becoming one of them.

It is becoming more apparent that I need to revisit the strength indicators and make them both easier to manage and to follow.


Our current strength settings are set at every 50 men in a battalion contributing 1 strength point to their Brigade. The Firing/Combat Dice are then a quarter of this figure:

StrengthCombat/Firing Dice
Relationship of Strength to Firing Dice

My proposal for changing this would be to base strength as 1 for every 100 men in a battalion, this figure can then be halved rather than quartered to calculate the firing/combat dice.

When casualties are suffered it would still be a on a 1 hit for 50 men basis, meaning that if (in the unlikely event) a unit was reduced to zero strength, it would only equate to half its original strength. My thinking being that any unit that has suffered half of its strength as casualties wouldn’t stick around too long!


It’s also become apparent while compiling the Battle of Talavera lists that Cavalry units need to have their strength decreased. Cavalry units were being compiled with over 100 strength each time using the ratio of 1:10 men. Therefore, I’m going to change this to in 1:50 strength and continue testing on that basis. It may need further revision and may even come in line to Infantry in time, but currently i’ll continue with a 1:50 basis.


StrengthFiring/Combat Dice
New Strength Chart


This may make it easier for tracking both strength and firing dice. With either a player choosing to represent the strength of each battalion on their own bases with 2D6, or on the commanders base with 4D6. However, it could just as easily be tracked on an Order of Battle Sheet. This strength would then be divided by two (rounding up) to calculate the number of firing/combat dice a unit would have.


Play Testers Wanted!!

So im getting towards completion of my first draft of the core combat mechanics and as such will be looking to play test in earnest going forward.

Therefore I need volunteers to help me out! Do you fancy having a go with the rules and know another person who may be willing to try them too?

If so drop me an email at clausewitz.tabletop@gmail.com

I’ll send you all the details you’ll need and a series of questions which I’m hoping you’ll be able to answer through your testing.

Thank you!


Coup D’Oeil

Each general will require Coup d’Oeil (CdO) during the game. The number a general needs will depend upon their rank and the number of men they command.

Generals will be able to generate CdO each turn, with higher ranked generals able to generate more than lower ranks. Someone like Napoleon or Wellington for example would have more than Murat or Junot. They will also start with a number of CdO which they can use at the deployment point to have units on the tabletop at the beginning of the battle.

CdO can then be spent during the course of the game on certain events:

  • Sending an ADC to a unit to activate and task it with taking and holding an objective.
  • Bring reserves onto the battlefield with a purpose to take and hold an objective.

Generating CdO

There will be various ways to do so. A general will be able to generate so much CdO each turn, revealing units, holding objectives and routing enemy units from the table will also generate CdO. So let’s look at each of these in turn.

Revealing Units

Each time a friendly unit closes to within 20cm (roughly 1 kilometre at scale) of an enemy that unit will be revealed (perhaps 30cm if the unit is stationed on a hill with clear line of sight), this will generate CdO for the General. At present I will set this to 1 CdO per unit. With games of roughly 50,000 men on each side this should equate to around 50 CdO.

Holding Objectives

CdO awarded for holding objectives will depend upon the objective which are split into Primary or Secondary objectives. The figures for generation from these should also be relatively low, so let’s start out by saying that holding a Primary objective (being within 10cm) will generate 2 CdO, while a secondary objective will generate 1 CdO. Let’s assume a player holds half of the objectives during the course of the game (1.5 Primary and 1.5 Secondary), over 50 turns this would give him 225 CdO.

Routing Units

Each time a unit is reduced to 0 morale it is routed and flees the battlefield. This will obviously not be a regular occurrence and without having performed any in depth play testing as yet, it is hard to determine how many on average will flee. Therefore we will need a holding number in the meantime. Let’s assume at this stage that perhaps 20% of an enemy army will flee, using our assumption of 50,000 men per army that equates to 10,000 men (or 100 strength).

I don’t think it would be entirely fair to have the strength of the unit as the reward, I’d rather have a base number which can be adjusted later if needs be. At the moment let’s assume that each routed enemy generates 10 CdO.

So for CdO generation from other events we have:

EventCdO Gained
Revealed Unit1 CdO
Holding a Primary Objective2 CdO per turn
Holding a Secondary Objective1 CdO per turn
Routed Enemy Unit10 CdO per Unit
CdO Generation

Through these events a General commanding 50,000 men against an army of a similar size, should roughly gain 315 CdO. He has an army of roughly 50,000 men and therefore would need 500 CdO to activate his units. He therefore needs to be able to Generate an additional 185 CdO.

Game Sizes

However not every game will be at 50,000 men a side, some may be smaller and others slightly larger.

To calculate how many Coup d’Oeil points would be needed in a game our first point of call should be some historic information on army organisation during the time.

Some fantastic information can be found as always on Rodwargaming.

During the Napoleonic wars most nations had battalions whose established strength was between 700 to 1200 men, although the Austrians had some battalions which were slightly larger than this range.  In practice however strength fell in the field so that the average effective battlefield strength of most battalions was some 600 men, although there were some significant variations.  The battalion was the primary tactical unit in that although several battalions would co-operate in Brigades or Divisions, each battalion would normally manoeuvre and change formation separately. 

So if we use the basis that an average Battalion is 600-800 men at the moment


Army1+ Corps
Corp2+ Divisions
Division2+ Brigades
Brigade2+ Battalions
BattalionRoughly 600-800 men
Napoleonic Army Organisation

Brigade Strength (2-5 Battalions)

This is unlikely to be a game size, but this will help create the building blocks for larger games.

A Brigade would consist of between two to five battalions of 700 men, at the moment let’s assume this is an average at 3.5 battalions. In Clausewitz this would equate to an in-game strength of 24.5.

Division Level Game (2-5 Brigades) (Small Game)

This will likely by the smallest game size that Clausewitz would do. Using our building block from the previous section, we’ll assume that an average Brigade is roughly 24.5 Strength.

A Division will be made from 2-5 Brigades, so let’s use the average and plump at 3.5

If there are on average three Brigades to a Division each a strength 24.5, we would need to generate 85.75 points (24.5 x 3.5) for our Divisional Commander over the course of the game. So our basic maths once more is 85.75.5 / 50 = 1.715.

But we also have to factor in that other in our earlier calculations for holding objectives etc. We know that holding half the objectives for the entire game will generate 225 CdO. However for a divisional game we only need to generate 85 CdO. This suggests that perhaps for this size game there are too many objective, so let’s assume a Divisional Game will be 1 primary and 1 Secondary objective, this would equate to 75 CdO over the course of the game if an army held half.

We therefore need a further 10 CdO to be generated (85.75 – 75 = 10.75).

We also have the CdO generated from revealing enemy units, if they have a similar sized force we’re looking at 3.5 CdO (1 for each reveal), this brings us to 7.25 CdO to generate (10.75 – 3.5).

Perhaps a single of the enemies 3.5 units will be routed during the course of the game, giving us a further 10 CdO. That brings us to above our target by 2.75 CdO. But we’ll need some extra CdO so that our general can issue an order at the beginning of the game, therefore we’ll need to be able to add on our average Brigade strength of 24.5, this brings us to 21.75 CdO needed.

The simplest answer to this would be to allow a Divisional General to start the game with 25 CdO, however a Divisional General will be unable to generate CdO through the game, as they should be able to attain enough through good tactics to activate most of their other units.

Corp level Game (2-5 Divisions) (Medium Game)

This would more likely be a more common game size, with roughly 30,000 men a side a Corp Level General will need to raise around 300 CdO for their troops to be activated.

For the Corp Level Game, we may have two primary and two secondary objectives on the field, these would generate 150 CdO if a General held exactly half through the game.

With 3.5 Divisions each on average each with 3.5 Brigades, the revealed units would equate to a further 12 CdO.

This brings us to 162 CdO generated so far with a further 138 required as a minimum.

We also have the estimated 20% routed enemy at 10 CdO per unit. With an enemy army of roughly 12 units this would equate to perhaps 2 units, which would add a further 20 CdO. This brings our total to 182 CdO with an additional 118 required.

118 CdO over 50 turns would mean the player requires 2.36 per turn. So let’s say that a Corp level Commander can generate 3 CdO per turn as well as starting with 50 CdO so they may activate up to two units at the start. This gives us the following so far:

GeneralStarting CdOCdO Generated per Turn
Divisional (Small Game)25
Corp (Medium Game)503
Commander CdO Values

Army level Game (2+ Corps) (Large Game)

This brings us to our final category of game. We’re going to assume at this point that the largest game we can handle is 2 corps each of roughly 60,000 men. This breaks our game down into 600 that each General will need to create.

We already have 225 from half of the Primary and Secondary objectives (3 of each), and in terms of revealed units this would be roughly be twice that of the Corp Level Game at around 24 units a side for 24 CdO. This brings our total to 249 CdO out of 600 needed.

We also have routed 20% of the enemy units giving us an additional 50 CdO leaving us with 299 CdO.

Our General therefore needs to be able to generate 300 CdO over 50 turns meaning 6 CdO a turn. Plus the usual of being able to activate 4 units in this case means they should start with 100 CdO.

Our final general card is therefore:

GeneralStarting CdOCdO Generated per Turn
Divisional (Small Game)25
Corp (Medium Game)503
Army (Large Game)1006
Commander CdO Values

These are just preliminary thoughts and there are other points to consider:

  • Light Cavalry – Spotting range of 30 cm instead of 20 cm to encourage their use in this role and avoid situations where units are revealing each other once they close to within 20cm.
  • Units that fire revealing themselves, particularly in the case of Artillery.
  • Units that move revealing themselves (possibly).
  • Increasing the CdO generated per turn to avoid so much impact being placed on battlefield success to generate CdO, giving a player a chance who’s behind to catch up.
  • Reduce CdO from Objectives to 1 CdO per turn for primary only and none for secondary.
  • Named Generals being able to perform certain acts. Marshal Ney for example finding it cheaper to activate Cavalry Brigades. Napoleon and Wellington gaining more than average CdO each turn and so on.

Light Infantry

I wanted to cover light infantry and their like briefly as I’ve already covered ‘true’ Skirmishers such as the rifles, Jaegers and Grenzers.

Light Infantry are slightly different, in that they could deploy companies in skirmish formation but their name light infantry was essentially in name only by the time the Napoleonic Wars started. Napoleonic Wargaming on YouTube has an excellent explanation of these troops on his video ‘Napoleonic skirmishing Light Infantry‘.

That being said I would like to give ‘light’ units a role in the game itself that encourages players to take them in matched play battles.

Therefore for each light infantry battalion on the players roster they will be allowed one marker for the deployment phase, a brief test of which is shown here. Units such as Grenzers, Jaegers, Legers etc will also contribute to the number of deployment markers a player can use in the deployment phase.

A few people have also commented that they feel uncertain about Light Cavalry skirmishing during a battle and I’m inclined to agree.

Therefore light cavalry will be unable to skirmish but they will also be able to contribute to the deployment markers at the beginning of the battle.

As always, I do love getting to hear peoples comments and suggestions, so please keep them coming and help me improve this game!

Make a Donation!

A donation of any size to Clausewitz will help this become a reality! All money received will be used to improve the website and for future publication.



Proposed Changes


To make things more universally acceptable I’m considering changing the units of measurement from centimetres to inches. This will allow those across the Pond to more easily use the rules.


First up movement, let’s recap out movement distances for units:

Taken from https://rodwargaming.wordpress.com/miltary-historical-research/military-historical-research/napoleonic-infantry-march-rates/ with thanks.

These paces are per minute and in the number of paces per minute. So scaled to 1:5300 over a ten minute period we have:

NationQuick Step (Paces per Minute)10 Mins @ 1:5300 Scale Distance
British10815.53 cm
French10014.38 cm
Prussian10815.53 cm
Austrian 1805 Regs12017.25 cm
Austrian 1807 Regs10515.10 cm
Russian11015.82 cm
Quick Step March Rates by Nation

What we need to do now is convert these into inches by dividing the values by 2.54, giving us:

NationPrevious Centimetre DistanceRevised Inches distance
British15.53 cm6.11 inches
French14.38 cm5.66 inches
Prussian15.53 cm6.11 inches
Austrian 1805 Regs17.25 cm6.79 inches
Austrian 1807 Regs15.10 cm5.94 inches
Russian15.82 cm6.23 inches
Quick Step March Rates by Nation

These give us a distance of roughly 6 inches (apart from those Austrians) of movement per turn. However, this brings up an issue with our actions, 6 is not easily divisible by 5, only by 1,2 or 3 so that limits the number of actions we can take each turn.

But before we go further lets look at cavalry movement at well. Below is our original calculations for 10 minutes of movement for Cavalry.

GaitFull MovementPer Action
Walk22.01 cm4.40 cm
Trot40.88 cm8.18 cm
Gallop138.37 cm27.67 cm (limited to one action)
Cavalry Movement Speeds

Let’s convert that full movement into inches like we did with the infantry:

GaitFull Movement (cm)Full Movement (inches)
Walk22.01 cm8.66 inches
Trot40.88 cm16.09 inches
Cavalry Movement Speeds

You’ll note that I’ve placed N/A next to the Cavalry movement ranges for Gallop. I’m considering removing this pace as it covers too much ground for the cavalry and doesn’t allow Infantry time in which to react. The two paces would be changed to Ordinary and Quick, much like the Infantry.

In the case above we have the same problem where the figures aren’t easily divisible by 5, they can be divided into 4,2 or 1. So at the moment we can divide the infantry and cavalry rates easily by 2 or 1. Perhaps we should up the turn time to 15 minutes, what effect would that have on the distances?

NationPrevious Centimetre DistanceRevised Inches distance
British23.30 cm9.17 inches
French21.57 cm8.49 inches
Prussian23.30 cm9.17 inches
Austrian 1805 Regs25.88 cm10.18 inches
Austrian 1807 Regs22.65 cm8.92 inches
Russian23.73 cm9.34 inches
Quick Step March Rates by Nation over 15 minutes

Resulting in movement of 9″, only divisible by 1 or 3. As for cavalry:

GaitFull Movement (cm)Full Movement (inches)
Walk33.02 cm13 inches
Trot61.32 cm24.14 inches
Cavalry Movement Speeds

These distances are once again too long and would not allow infantry to react in time. So we’ll have to come up with some sort of compromise.

My first thoughts are for infantry to move 6 inches at a slow pace and 9″ at quick pace, these would be divisible by 3 resulting in 3 actions/reactions per turn. This does have the added benefit of reducing the number of actions that players carry out for each unit and thus speeding up the process.

I’d also change cavalry so that their slow pace is 6″ and their quick pace is 12″, once again all divisible by 3.

Another option is to change infantry movement to 5″ and quick pace to 10″, while Cavalry gets changed to 10″ and 15″ with the possibility of a charge move for light cavalry at 20″.

Musketry ranges would be slightly increased to allow shooting on reactions still to 2″ at effective and 4″ for long range.

Either way., I’d love to know all your opinions (especially those from North America!). I’ve included a poll below:


Skirmishers Part II

As an adjustment to the skirmisher rules we already have in place I wanted to firm up their role and what the can do in battle.


A lot of units had trained soldiers to skirmishz but not all could fight effectively in this fashion.

Then British and the French in particular trained specialist companies of their line and light regiments to fight as Skirmishers which could be deployed in this fashion during the battle to cover their battalions advance. They would march ahead and aim for the officers in the opposing forces.


Battalions would not usually waste ammunition on firing at Skirmishers as they were so spread out you were unlikely to hit many. Therefore Battalions are only able to fire on Skirmishers if there are no other targets within 4cm of their base.

Therefore if both sides have Skirmishers deployed they must target each other before they can proceed to fire on the enemy battalions.

When Skirmishers shoot and hit the enemy, they cause 2 morale damage and no strength damage. This is to represent the skirmishers trying to eliminate the upward chain of command and cause disorder.


Some battalions are able to fight more effectively as Skirmishers, such as Rifle regiments, Grenzers and Jaegers. As such these units will be developed over time to show this. Possibly with a higher starting morale or ‘ready’ roll.

For more information on true light infantry please see this fantastic video on YouTube by Napoleonic Wargaming which explains light infantry much better than I ever could.

Make a Donation

A donation of any size to Clausewitz will help this become a reality! All money received will be used to improve the website and for future publication.



Reddit Community Open and New Videos

Rather than bombarding the r/wargaming and r/tabletopgamedesign communities on Reddit with constant updates, I’ll post links to all the new articles and videos on this community as well as my twitter feed.

Please do sign up and also follow me on twitter so that you know when I post new content.

The Reddit community is r/ClausewitzWargame

I’ve also carried out some further testing using Battle Chronicler and have posted these to YouTube:

Video Play Test 2 – Line Formation v Line Formation
Video Play Test 3 – Column Formation v Line Formation

Interestingly in the last video, I think that if Red had formed a line of 3 Battalions, they could have used all 13 dice and thus fair slightly better than they did! Which shows possibly that the brigade formations as well as battalion formations may yet work!


Quick Reference Sheet Now Available

I’re recently changed the page “Clausewitz War Game” to now include the downloadable file for the current set of rules.

I will try and update these weekly as I go forward, so that they are the most recent version. However, if there is a delay please bear with me.



Having considered melee in detail now for a number of days, I know that I want it to be accurate but also fairly quick using our current mechanics without introducing any new attributes.

Melee will occur once units belonging to opposing forces meet in base to base contact.

To resolve a combat each base rolls it’s number of combat/firing dice with each score of 5+ classed as a ‘hit’.

The player with the most hits wins the combat and receives 1 damage point to their base (this represents men lost during the assault), the loser suffers D3 damage to their base, becomes broken and flees 10cm.

Melee was very rarely (if ever) conducted between infantry battalions in the open field. Therefore should an attacking unit make it into base to base contact with the enemy, the enemy will immediately become broken and flee 10cm while suffering D3 casualties. In this case no casualties are suffered by the victor.

This whole process should make the combat swift and simple.


When cavalry are involved in combat with infantry, any rolls of a 4+ on their dice represent hits, while the enemy will require 6+. This should represent the difficulty of fighting cavalry on foot and trying to disable a target that is travelling both faster an in a higher position than yourself.

Cavalry v Cavalry

Cavalry v cavalry attacks are carried out in the same fashion, but both units have to score 6’s to hit the enemy due to the both sides being able to move faster and requiring more skill to hit a man on horseback.

Square Formations

The horses of a cavalry unit would historically refuse to charge a wall of men with big shiny steel blades, therefore if an infantry unit is in square formation, cavalry will be unable to make base to base contact and should remain at least 1cm away from a base in this formation.

Street Fighting

Fighting over villages and towns could be extremely brutal close quarter fighting from building to building. Only infantry were suited to this with light infantry and Skirmishers even more so. Therefore, light infantry and skirmishing troops inside a village or town will need 4’s to hit their opponent instead of the usual 5’s.

Cavalry cannot take part in village or town fighting.

This may need further adjustments once it has been tested further but for now it feels suitable.

Make a Donation.

A donation of any size to Clausewitz will help this become a reality! All money received will be used to improve the website and for future publication.