Category Archives: Movement

Clausewitz (A Synopsis)

It’s been a fair while since I’ve written anything and for that I sincerely apologise.

Life, as always gets in the way of planning a good wargames ruleset.

After such a long time I thought it would be best to summarise what the rules look like so far (including changes to the command and control).

Deployment
Each player has a number of deployment markers (min 5), which they will use to determine their deployment area. Players can be granted additional deployment markers if their army possess units with the “Deployment Marker” special rule.

After a roll off the winner decides which table edge they would like and the loser takes a marker and places it in contact with their own board edge, they then move this marker 15cm. The other player does the same.

Deployment Areas determined by Deployment Markers

On the players second deployment turn, the can choose either to place another of their markers on the table and move that (as they did in the first deployment turn), or they can choose to move their original marker another 15cm.

All markers must either be within 30cm of a table edge or 30 cm of another friendly marker. If a marker moves to within 30cm of an enemy marker    then both markers remain at 30cm apart and are considered “locked”.

Both players continue to move their markers until all markers have been locked.  The players may then deploy their units in their deployment zone which has been determined by the area in which their deployment markers enclose.

Game Essentials
All measurements within Clausewitz is done using centimetres, and the game is designed to be played on a 6’x4′ table.

Generals must spend actions to activate their divisional generals. This is done by sending an ADC marker to the divisional general, once this reaches the general they are given a objective number as their target in the game. From this point onwards that divisional general and their units can only score victory points for claiming that objective.

Each additional general activated adds a further five chips to the bag for that force.

Command and Control


Each unit and each General in a game of Clausewitz has a rating of 1 to 5. When ordering units to act the owning player must roll equal to or higher than the combined rating of the general issuing the order and the unit receiving the order.

Generals of Division can only issue orders to their own Division, Commanders-in-Chief may issue orders to any units. An order costs a general one of their actions.

The distance between the target unit and the general also has an impact on how effective that unit may be. For every 8cm of distance between the two the target unit loses an action point that turn.

Units

Units in Clausewitz is considered to be a number of bases which represents the battalions or squadrons along with the Brigade General.

Each Brigade has a number of stats. Morale and actions; both of which are shown on the brigade generals base, and Combat Dice and formation and which are shown on the battalion and squadron bases.

Each unit also has stats for how well they are able to fire their weapons and how effective they are in combat.

Brigades have five actions, which can range from changing formation, firing and movement.

Game Mechanics

I have the overall aim of making Clausewitz simple to play but also with a realistic element to its general play. For example the orders system where units need to receive orders from their general before moving or attacking and those generals in turn needing to receive objectives before acting themselves.

Movement is all based on the historical information of unit marching distances. Therefore in a ten minute turn you’ll find using all five actions on a unit of line infantry will move them 10cm which equates to roughly a third of a mile.

Firing is done by actions as well with each unit able to use its combat dice to shoot, first rolling for their steady roll (usually 5+) with any successes here being rolled for hits. The range of the weapons are also historically accurate with muskets having a long range of 4cm and effective range of 2cm.

Formations have different effect on the units themselves. With column being able to move at a quick march rate but being vulnerable to artillery and small arms fire. Line formations effective at shooting but awful when charges by the enemy.

Morale is always the key in this game and sometimes if you find an attack has not been successful it may be wise to return the attacking troops to your own lines to allow them to recuperate.

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Rulebook Adjustments

So following on from some further testing carried out by members of the Discord server this week, they made some excellent points in regards to some of the rules I’m going to mention below.

FIRING
It’s become more clear with testing that its not entirely clear which units can fire when performing a firing action. Therefore I’ve changed the Fire! action to read as:

Fire! (Cost: 1 Action Point) Offensive or Defensive The Brigade can fire all its available combat dice assigned to the units at the front of the Brigade. Each unit can fire at any units directly to their front.

ENFILADING FIRE
This is for units which are firing on the flank of battalions that are formed in line. I’ve added the following paragraph in the firing section:

Enfilading Fire
Units which fire on the flank of a unit in line formation are performing what is called enfilading fire, when this occurs the target unit receives double damage.

FLANK AND REAR ATTACKS IN MELEE
I’ve added the following section to the rulebook under melee:

Flank and Rear Attacks
Units which are attacking the enemy in the flank receive a +1 modifier to their combat dice roll, while units attacking an enemy in its rear benefits from a +2 modifier.

MINIMUM FLEEING DISTANCES
It became apparent through testing that units could take advantage of units that were fleeing but unable to move due to having no actions left and so being able to constantly cause damage to them. Therefore I’m replacing the following wording:

If the unit fails by a value of more than 2 then the unit will flee the remaining number of actions at 3cm per action and end its turn facing directly away from the enemy

With:

If the unit fails by a value of more than 2 then the unit will flee 3cm away from the enemy plus its remaining number of actions at 3cm per action and end its turn facing directly away from the enemy

FORMATIONS
I’d forgotten to clarify in previous versions how many combat dice can be used by each unit depending upon their formation. Therefore I’ve added a Benefits and Cons section to each in the rule book:

Line
Benefits: Can use all combat dice when firing. Does not suffer extra damage from artillery attacks.
Cons: Cannot use the quick march action. Can be vulnerable to cavalry attacks.

Column
Benefits: Can use the quick march action and the Brigade benefits from +1 to their morale rolls for each unit inside the Brigade in this formation. Cavalry effects are reduced.
Cons: Can only use a quarter of their combat dice (rounded up).

Square
Benefits: Cannot be charged by Cavalry and the Brigade benefits from +1 to their morale rolls for each unit inside the Brigade in this formation.  
Cons: Can only use a quarter of their combat dice (rounded up). Cannot move.

CHANGE BRIGADE FORMATION
I’ve changed this slightly so that Brigades can only be a max of three units wide.

OTHER NOTES

A speed play option has also been suggested, this is being considered further.

All of the above changes will be reflected in version 0.3.2 which will be released on the website and on the steam mod on Sunday (possibly along with the Russian army).

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Clausewitz Rules v0.3

Following on the fantastic feedback I’ve received from Reddit, Discord, WhatsApp, Playtests and emails I’m proud to say this is the latest version of Clausewitz now with some of the first diagrams included. There’s a lot of work to be done but I’m hoping to update these rules every other week at the least.

If you have any further suggestions to rule wording, grammar corrections or anything in reference to the rules or their format please let me know by contacting me at clausewitz.tabletop@gmail.com or joining our Discord or WhatsApp chats and letting me know directly.

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Clausewitz Rules v0.2

Following on from comments on Discord I’ve changed around some of the paragraphs so that it reads easier. I’ve also added in the sections I’ve written this week.

If you have any further suggestions to rule wording, grammar corrections or anything in reference to the rules or their format please let me know by contacting me at clausewitz.tabletop@gmail.com or joining our Discord or WhatsApp chats and letting me know directly.

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Clausewitz Full Alpha Ruleset

The following is a full list of the Alpha rules. Please take your time to read through them or download the Word Document attached. I’m looking for feedback on everything from spelling, wording and location of paragraphs to feedback on rules etc. No opinion is a bad opinion and please be as thorough as you can! All people who provide feedback will be mentioned in the rulebook upon its release as a thank you. The word document attached has track changes on so please feel free to make as many changes as you like and send the document to clausewitz.tabletop@gmail.com

The rules below have been adjusted and all articles on the nations will be revisited to update the rules for the individual units.

Again, thank you to everyone who has helped me get this far with the rules but especially to Chris Pringle and Lehann who gave many a thoughtful idea or suggestion on the way!

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THE SCALE
Clausewitz has been designed for 6mm wargaming at a scale of 1:5300, which roughly equates to one 6mm figure representing 50 men. One foot equates to one mile.

There is nothing to stop players using other scales however, please see the section on ‘Other Miniature Scales’.

THE FIGURES AND BASING
Basing for the scale mentioned above is 40mm wide and 30mm deep, these apply to all types of units apart from Aide-de-camp (ADC’s) which can be represented on any small round base as a single mounted miniature.

Unit bases have two dice holders on each base at the back which represent the formation that Unit is in and the number of combat dice the Unit possess. Alternatively, these can be tracked using pen and paper.

Command bases are the same size as Unit bases with dice holders to represent the Brigades Actions, Morale and Strength.

ADC’s are a single miniature on a round base with a single dice holder representing an objective target (more on this later).

Each base represents a unit, this may be a Battalion (Infantry), Squadron (Cavalry) or Company (Artillery). These bases are grouped together into Brigades which are the main elements of any game. Bases inside a Brigade act together simultaneously.

THE BATTLEFIELD
A game of Clausewitz can be played on any size playing area but 6’x4′ is ideal for representing the larger battles of the time.

TERRAIN
There are various types of terrain that affect gameplay and are fall under different categories:

Open
This represents your standard rolling countryside and fields. Open has no effect on the outcome of the battle. Quick March can only be used on open terrain.

Units moving along roads can take advantage of a +1cm addition to their movement speed.

Rough
Rough ground can be anything from scrubland to ploughed fields. Units passing through rough terrain are unable to use Quick March.

Difficult
Units moving through difficult terrain halve their movement speed (rounded up) as they make certain of their footing.

Impassable
Only units with the special rule El Bruc may move through, down or up impassable terrain at a rate of 1cm per action. If this unit is inside a Brigade with other units that do not possess this special rule then the Brigade cannot take advantage of this rule.

Impassable terrain may be such areas like ravines or cliffs.

A section on terrain types is included towards the back of the rules with the different effects each terrain type has on play and their classification. For example, troops inside of woods receive a 6+ saving throw. Troops uphill in a melee to their enemy will receive a +1 to their combat dice roll.

BRIGADES
A Brigade is made up of a number of bases known as “Units” which represent Battalions, Cavalry or Artillery companies, or even a combination of all three in some instances. Each Unit will add its own attributes to that of the Brigade. As well as the Units mentioned above, there will also be a Brigadier General base (same base dimensions) who represents the Brigade command.

Each Brigade is made up of basic attributes which are enhanced by the units that are included within that Brigade. Brigades can be no larger than five troop bases and one command base. These attributes are:

Command: 8+
Before any actions are carried out by a Brigade, they must pass a command test. This must be a D6 roll higher than that specified on their Brigade card. This roll can be modified by nearby Generals who can add some of their command bonus to the roll to help the unit pass. If that unit fails its roll it cannot act that turn.

Morale 8+
Morale is used once the unit is within the Zone of Control of any enemy units. This will be modified by formations of units within the Brigade and also by the number of units inside the Brigade. Each Unit stand (not command stand) will add +1 to this roll. A Brigade cannot increase this beyond 3+ and a roll of 2 in 2D6 is always a failure.

Strength: 0
Strength is an optional attribute which the player can use to determine how many loss’s their army or Brigades suffered at the end of the battle. For every 50 men added to the Brigade increase this attribute by 1.

Steady 5+
This is the roll needed for the men in the Brigade to reload their weapons effectively under the gaze of the enemy and pluck up their courage to shoot at the men opposite them. Rolls which are successful can be rolled again in the ‘Fire!’ step of shooting. A ‘Fire!’ roll sees whether the Brigade hits its target, needing 4+ at effective range and 5+ at long range. Some elite units may boost this roll to a 4+ or perhaps grant re-rolls to a portion of the dice.

Combat Dice: 0
This is the number of dice the Brigade can use when it’s firing its weapons at the enemy or taking part in a melee action. As units are added to the Brigade the number of Combat Dice will increase in proportion with the size of the unit that is being added. A dice is added for every 200 men of a unit. When a Brigade takes any damage, for each damage roll a die on 5+ their Combat Dice pool is reduced by 1.

Skirmish Dice: 0
The number of skirmish dice assigned to the Brigade is determined by the number of light infantry units inside the Brigade and the number of other units with the Skirmishers special rule. For each 1000 men (rounded up) of a light infantry or unit with the Skirmishers special Rule, add 1 skirmish die. Skirmish dice are explained in greater detail later on in these rules.

Artillery Dice: 0
Each time Artillery units are assigned to the Brigade the Artillery dice pool is increased by one for each artillery piece that is added.

CC v Foot: 5+
This is the basic melee stat for all Brigades. When a Brigade meets an opposing foot unit in base-to-base contact on terrain that isn’t open, those Brigades will fight a melee action. Using their combat dice, rolls of equal or higher the value specified will result in a hit against the opposing Brigade.

CC v Mounted: 6+
This is the basic melee stat for all Brigades. When a Brigade meets an opposing mounted unit in base-to-base contact on terrain that isn’t open, those Brigades will fight a melee action. Using their combat dice, rolls of equal or higher the value specified will result in a hit against the opposing Brigade.

UNIT FORMATIONS
Foot units inside a Brigade can take on different formations depending on the situation they find themselves in. To change the formation for any units within the Brigade, the Brigade must use an action to change unit formations for one action point. The formations available to foot troops are:

Line Formation
The line formation allows the unit to fire all available combat dice assigned to it. Fire from artillery is less effective from the front and only causes half damage (half the damage from all incoming artillery fire and round up). Artillery fire directly into the flank of a line unit would cause double damage. (double all damage from incoming artillery fire). Units in line formation cannot use its quick march speed.

Column Formation
Any units that are in column formation grant the Brigade an additional one to its morale (remember that the Brigade morale cannot exceed 3+). Units in column formation can use the quick march pace. Columns are vulnerable to Artillery fire and so receive double damage from all incoming artillery attacks. Cavalry pose less of threat to units in column formation and therefore cannot charge them, the Cavalry special rule is reduced by one for Brigades that have their units in Columns (i.e., Cavalry (-2) is reduced to Cavalry (-1) and Cavalry (-1) is negated).

Square Formation
Used solely as a defensive formation any units in Square cannot move, and suffer double damage from artillery attacks. Cavalry cannot charge units in Square formation and their Cavalry special rule does not affect units in Square.

PLAY METHODS
Clausewitz can be used to either re-fight historical engagements where players can build an army using the order of battle at the time, or, as a points-based game where players build armies of equal value.

THE TURN

There are 30 turns to a game of Clausewitz, this represents 5 hours of battle. Players may wish to add more turns if they’re refiguring a historic engagement.

Each turn represents 10 minutes real time of battle, for example Turn 1 may represent the battle time between 9:50am and 10am.

OBJECTIVES
Each game will have a number of objectives on the battlefield which players will score points for holding. Objectives are numbered, and Brigades are given orders to hold these objectives. Brigades can only score victory points for their player if the Brigade has been designated to hold that objective by an ADC. At the end of each turn points are counted up and added to a running total.

GENERALS
Each player will be represented by a single base on the tabletop representing them as Commander-in-Chief (CinC). Players can move their commanders around the field of battle to issue orders to their Generals of Division (GD) or to their Brigadier Generals (BG) if playing in a smaller game.

The CinC can issue ADC’s to send orders to a General of Division or Brigade, when they do so an ADC base leaves the CinC with a dice representing the number of the objective that the Brigade can attack. A CinC can only issue one ADC per turn.

An ADC must first make base to base contact with the General of Division for that Brigade however (chain of command and all that). Once they have made contact the ADC can continue o. To the Brigade.

Generals of Division and the Commander-in-Chief all have 5 command points they can spend each turn if they’re withing a certain distance if any friendly Units. Command points can be used to buff a Brigades command stat to make it easier for them to enact orders that turn.

If Generals are in base-to-base contact with a friendly unit in melee with the enemy the General can also take part and adds one additional combat dice to the friendly Brigade in combat. This dice is the equivalent of the Generals personal guard, as elite fighters these will hit on 4’s in melee.

SCOUTING PHASE
Before deploying their unit’s players will enter a mini-game to determine their deployment areas. Each general will have a number of Deployment Markers which represent the number of Light Infantry or Light Cavalry in their army.

These Markers move at a rate of 15cm. The generals move these Markers across the table in alternate turns. Each marker must be within either 15cm of a board edge or another friendly marker. If at any point a marker moves to within 15cm of any of the opponent’s markers both their marker and their opponents are locked into position and cannot move any further. Once all markers are ‘locked’ the area those markers enclose represent the players deployment area. Players then place their units in the table alternately beginning with the player who locked all their markers first.

PLAYING THE GAME
There are no phases in Clausewitz, instead at the beginning of a game each player has a single-coloured die or chip which they place inside a bag. Shake the bag and draw, whoever’s die or chip is drawn may act with their CinC first. The CinC may either move 30cm OR issue an ADC to a Brigade.

Once the ADC reaches a General of Division or Brigade and has given them their objective that General or Brigade is considered to be ‘activated’.

Once a Brigade or General has been activated an additional chip or die for that player can be added to the draw bag for the next turn. When that player draws their chip the next turn, they can then choose which of their activated elements to use.

ACTIVATED ELEMENTS
Each element can use up to five actions per turn, some actions cost more than others a list of actions is shown later on.

Actions usually revolve around moving, changing formation or attacking the enemy.

REACTIONS
Elements may choose to reserve some of their actions as reactions. Reactions enable you to respond to enemies within 10cm of your elements, this distance is known as the ‘Zone of Control’. Therefore, if you have activated a unit and are perhaps 15-20cm away from the enemy it may be wise to reserve some of your actions as reactions so that you can repulse the enemy of they attack.

If you’re outside of the zone of control of an enemy and you’re moving a unit that will end all its actions without entering an enemies Zone of Control you can choose to use all your actions at once to speed up play. For example, moving your infantry 10cm instead of 2cm per action.

ZONE OF CONTROL
Once opposing elements close to within 10cm they have entered the zone of control. From this point forward these elements can only move directly towards or directly away from the enemy in their ZoC.

Actions within a ZoC must be taken one at a time and must be preceded by a morale check for the unit performing the action. If they fail their morale check then depending on how badly that unit has failed by will determine how the unit reacts.

If the element passes its morale check it may use an action as normal and the enemy must then make a morale test to perform a defensive reaction. If either element fails their morale test by a value of 2 or less, that element will withdraw directly away from the enemy at its standard move rate (while keeping its front towards the enemy), this is known as a withdrawal, it may not make any more actions that turn aside from defensive fire or withdrawals as reactions. If an element fails by a value of more than 2 then that element flees using the move distance it has available from its remaining actions (i.e., the element has four actions remaining, it will make four move actions ending with the element facing away from the enemy and the element may not use perform any other actions or reactions that turn and must pass a morale test the next turn to move as normal. If it fails this test then it will flee a further 5 actions.

ACTIONS & REACTIONS

Order (Cost: 1 Action Point)
A general can issue an order once per turn to a subcommander (this may be a General of Division in the case of the Commander-in-Chief or a Brigade in the case of the General of Division). When doing so, an ADC is placed in base-to-base contact with the command stand issuing the order, it may then move 30cm towards its intended target regardless of terrain.

March (Cost: 1 Action Point) Offensive/Defensive
The entire Brigade may make a move at the speed of its slowest Unit on the March. The defensive version moves the Brigade away from the enemy. Units cannot use Reactions to advance.

Quick March (Cost: 1 Action Point)
The entire Brigade may make a move at the slowest of its Unit on the Quick March. This cannot be used inside the Zone of Control of an enemy unit.

Change Unit Formations (Cost: 1 Action Point)
Any Units within the Brigade can change their formation is they are able to do so. Formations can either be Line, Square, Column or Skirmish.

Change Brigade Formation (Cost: 3 Action Points)
The entire Brigade can change its formation to having either 4, 3, 2 or 1 wide in units. Cannot be performed in a Zone of Control of the enemy.

Fire Skirmish Weapons (Cost: 1 Action Point)
A unit that has skirmish dice under its attributes can fire these at the enemy if it wishes. If it does so, the weapons can fire at long range as though they were inside effective range (hitting on 4+ instead of 6+ on their Fire! roll). This represents the skirmishers moving ahead of the main body of troops and firing on the enemy as they approach. The process for firing skirmish dice is the same as firing the weapons of the rest of the Brigade.

Fire! (Cost: 1 Action Point) offensive/defensive
The Brigade can fire all its available combat dice assigned to the front rank of units in the Brigade.

Bombard (Cost: 1 Action Point) offensive/defensive
The Brigade can fire all its available artillery dice assigned to the Brigade. If an enemy is within the Brigades Zone of Control that enemy must be the target.

Hold! (Cost: 0 Action Points) offensive/defensive
The Brigade holds position waiting for the enemy to move closer. If the enemy brigade is within weapon range the Brigade must pass a command test, if it fails to do so the Brigade will fire all its weapons at the closest enemy within range.

MOVEMENT
When using a march action foot troops can move 2cm per action, if using a quick march action, they can move 3cm.

Mounted troops move at a rate of 4cm on the march per action and 8cm at quick march.

ADVANCED RULES

Capturing Generals
Players whose Brigades move over or finish their move on top of an enemy general are considered to have captured that General. He must stay in base-to-base contact with that Brigade until a friendly Brigade defeats them in combat or the end of the game. An extra victory point is awarded per General captured or killed.

Capturing Enemy Colours
A Brigade can capture the colours of enemy units it defeats in melee on a roll of a 6. An extra victory point is awarded per colour captured.

Using Strength
If players wish and they agree between themselves, they can use the strength stat on the Brigades, this will need tracking throughout the game.  At the end of the game subtract your ending strength of all your units against what you began with. The difference between these two figures is the number of loss’s your army has suffered. Multiply the value by 50 to give you a rough estimate of how many men were killed or wounded during the engagement. This works best for replicating historical battles and comparing your results to that of the General who commanded the army at the time.

FIRING
Any type of firing is broken down into two steps.

1st Step: Steady!
Each Brigade is given a ‘Steady’ stat, this represents how nervous the men are in battle and how likely they’re to load and fire their weapons correctly. This is usually a roll of 5+.

2nd Step: Fire!
Successful ‘Steady!’ rolls then go on to make their ‘Fire!’ roll which at the effective range of the weapon is 4+ while long range is 6+. Any success from this count as hits on the enemy, if the enemy is allowed to make saving throws, they would do so once hits have been allocated to their Brigades.

TERRAIN TYPES

Woods Difficult Terrain, units inside woods receive a saving throw of 5+ from any type of weapons fire.

Ploughed FieldsRough Terrain

Villages/TownsDifficult Terrain, units inside villages or towns are considered to be imbedded inside the buildings etc and therefore receive a saving throw of 4+. Other units can attack units embedded in Villages or Towns in melee but the defender receives +1 to their combat dice.

CliffsImpassable Terrain

RavinesImpassable Terrain

LakesImpassable Terrain

RiversDifficult Terrain

Gentle HillsOpen Terrain, however units in melee in a lower position on the hill than their target suffer -1 to their combat dice rolls.

Steep HillsRough Terrain, units in melee in a lower position on the hill than their target suffer -2 to their combat dice rolls (rolls of 6 will always hit).

MarshDifficult Terrain

WEAPONS (these will be superseded by the Nations Army Lists once fully written)

Pistols
Effective Range: 1cm
Long Range: 2cm

Muskets
Effective Range: 2cm
Long Range: 4cm

Rifles
Effective Range: 4cm
Long Range: 8cm

6 Pounder Cannon
Effective Range: 10cm
Long Range: 15cm

12 Pounder Cannon
Effective Range: 12cm
Long Range: 20cm

Howitzers
Effective Range: 15cm
Long Range: 25cm

BASIC UNITS ARMY LIST (these will be superseded by the Nations Army Lists once fully written)

LINE INFANTRY           
Command: No effect
Type: Foot
Morale: +1 per unit added
Strength: +1 per 50 men added
Steady: No effect
Combat Dice: +1 per 200 men added
Skirmish Dice: +1 per 1000 men added
Artillery Dice: No effect
CC v Foot: No effect
CC v Mounted: No effect
Additional Rules: None

LIGHT INFANTRY
Command: No effect
Type: Foot
Morale: +1 per unit added
Strength: +1 per 50 men added
Steady: No effect
Combat Dice: +1 per 200 men added
Skirmish Dice: +1 per 1000 men added
Artillery Dice: No effect
CC v Foot: No effect
CC v Mounted: No effect
Additional Rules:
‘Deployment Marker’ – adds a deployment marker for the player to use in the scouting phase of the game.

HEAVY CAVALRY
Command: No effect
Type: Mounted
Morale: +1 per unit added
Strength: +1 per 50 men added
Steady: No effect
Combat Dice: +1 per 50 men added
Skirmish Dice: No effect
Artillery Dice: No effect
CC v Foot: No effect
CC v Mounted: No effect
Additional Rules:
‘Cavalry (-2)’ – All enemy foot units within 10cm suffer a -2 modifier on their morale test rolls.

LINE CAVALRY
Command: No effect
Type: Mounted
Morale: +1 per unit added
Strength: +1 per 50 men added
Steady: No effect
Combat Dice: +1 per 50 men added
Skirmish Dice: No effect
Artillery Dice: No effect
CC v Foot: No effect
CC v Mounted: No effect
Additional Rules:
‘Cavalry (-1)’ – All enemy foot units within 10cm suffer a -1 modifier on their morale test rolls.

LIGHT CAVALRY
Command: +1 per unit added
Type: Mounted
Morale: +1 per unit added
Strength: +1 per 50 men added
Steady: No effect
Combat Dice: +1 per 50 men added
Skirmish Dice: No effect
Artillery Dice: No effect
CC v Foot: No effect
CC v Mounted: No effect
Additional Rules:
‘Cavalry (-1)’ – All enemy foot units within 10cm suffer a -1 modifier on their morale test rolls.
‘Deployment Marker’ – adds a deployment marker for the player to use in the scouting phase of the game.

FOOT ARTILLERY
Command: No effect
Type: Foot
Morale: +1 per unit added
Strength: +1 per 50 men added
Steady: No effect
Combat Dice: No effect
Skirmish Dice: No effect
Artillery Dice: +1 per weapon
CC v Foot: No effect
CC v Mounted: No effect
Additional Rules:
‘Artillery’ – In Melee this unit halves the number of combat dice it may use.

HORSE ARTILLERY
Command: No effect
Type: Mounted
Morale: +1 per unit added
Strength: +1 per 50 men added
Steady: No effect
Combat Dice: No effect
Skirmish Dice: No effect
Artillery Dice: +1 per weapon
CC v Foot: No effect
CC v Mounted: No effect
Additional Rules:
‘Artillery’ – In Melee this unit halves the number of combat dice it may use.

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Cavalry Fleeing

Following on from yesterdays post regarding Infantry movement rate when fleeing, it seemed only sensible to continue the thought process with Cavalry.

A QUICK REVISIT TO INFANTRY FLEEING

Before I do however, I wanted to a very good point that was made on Reddit by u/Db102 who reminded me that the infantry would be carrying their kit and also their shoes would not be designed for the individuals wearing them. To see his comment please click here.

For that reason I feel it would be sensible to reduce the fleeing rate of foot troops further to 5 cm to take in the reasoning that u/Db102 stated in his comments. This would mean that Infantry have the potential to flee 25 cm per turn instead of 30cm. However, I may well do some further research on this yet to find any more information.

CAVALRY FLEEING

I believe that ideally the fleeing rate for Cavalry should be between their quick pace (trot) and their charge (Gallop), so I’m going to use another horse gait that I’ve not yet used, the canter.

While the gallop is a full tilt run across unbroken ground at roughly at roughly 25-30mph and the trot is at roughly 8mph, the canter comes nicely between those rates at between 10-17mph.

So if we take somewhere around the middle of this pace and use 14mph as a start, how does that equate as a distance over ten minutes?

SpeedDistance in 10 Minutes (14/6)
14 mph2.33 Miles
Canter Distance in 10 Minutes

Next we need to work out how far this would be in our 1:5300 scale:

DistanceIn MetresAt 1:5300 Scale
2.33 Miles3754.3370.83 cm
Canter Distance in 10 Minutes at Scale

So a horse at a canter would cover 71 cm of the gaming table in one turn of our game. But we also need this broken down into actions like we did with Infantry fleeing:

Distance in 10 MinutesPer Action (Divided by 5)
71 cm14.2 cm
Distance per Action

Which brings us to 14 cm per action, but again we have to account for the kit and the man that the horse would be carrying, so let’s use the same method that we used for the Infantry rate at the beginning of this post and reduce it by a sixth.

Per ActionReduced by One Sixth
14.2 cm11.83 cm
Per Action

There we have it, as scientific as we can get without any in depth analysis of the kit that each troop wore and the types of horses used etc.

The Cavalry fleeing distance will be set at 12 cm per action.

As always I’d love to hear your feedback.

SOURCE

Wikipedia – Horse Gaits

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Infantry Fleeing

So far I’ve used the quick march rate as a fleeing distance for infantry, but I want something a little more scientific rather than just plucking a figure out of the air.

Therefore I have been researching across various websites to try and find an average running speed for humans. So where better to go to that RunnersWorld.com.

On the article I’ve linked you can see that based on 300 million uploads to the Strata App the average running pace for a man running the mile was 9 minutes 15 seconds. So that seems to be a good place to start. Let’s convert this into our scale:

1 Mile Time1 Mile in Metres1 Mile at Scale (1:5300)
9:15 (555 Secs)1,60930.36 cm
Running the Mile

Now we need to establish how far they would run in 10 minutes (1 turn):

DistanceDivided by Seconds (555)Times by 600 Seconds (10 mins)
30.36 cm0.05 cm32.82 cm
Distance in 10 minutes

Next I’d like to break this down into individual 2 minute actions:

Distance in 10 minutesDivided by 5 Actions
32.82 cm6.564 cm
Distance in 2 Minutes

Not exactly a nice round figure, however if we make this 6 cm per action we have a running distance of 30 cm in 10 minutes. Which considering the extra kit that men would be carrying seems reasonable.

THE RULES

So when a unit breaks, following a loss in combat or failing a morale test they would run 6 cm per action. This would form its reaction. For example:

Red Forces Brigade closes to within 2 cm of Blue Forces Brigade on its 3rd Action and unleashes a deadly volley at close range. Once the damage has been calculated Blue takes its morale test as normal for its reaction and fails by more than 2, it therefore flees 6 cm for its reaction directly away from the Red Brigade ending its reaction facing away from the enemy. The Red Forces in its 4th Action pass a morale and advance on Blue Brigade. Blue Brigade once more fails a morale test ad flees 6 cm. On the fifth action Red Forces are now 12 cm away from Blue and choose to hold. When it comes to Blue forces turn, they can attempt to rally at the start of the turn, otherwise they would flee 30 cm (5 actions).

I’ve removed a test every action once a broken unit is outside of 10 cm of the enemy and replaced this with a single test. However i’m willing to consider having a unit test 5 times after each action if people feel that’s a more realistic option.

Let me know your thoughts.

Peter

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Movement Part II

This is a very quick post to explain how I would expect various aspects of unit movement and facings to work inside the game as well as a units Zone of Control (ZC) in more detail.

WHEELING

Red Unit Brigade 4, wishes to use its movement and rotate so that it faces due east.

The Brigade in the above unit is going to use a number of move actions in order for it to wheel towards the east.

Brigade 4, now facing to the east

To do so, the front left hand side of the unit is essentially pinned in place so that when the unit wheels that point on the unit always remains in the same place.

The units movements

The right hand edge of the unit has had to move 6 cm to make this wheel happen, therefore the unit would have used 3 actions to make this wheel.

UNIT FIRING ARCS

Continuing with our example above the Brigade can now fire at any target within range inside its front 45 degree arc:

Firing Arc

ZONE OF CONTROL

All units in the game have a Zone of Control (ZC) which extends from the units front arc for a distance of 10 cm.

Enemy units within this ZC have to react to this unit or the closest enemy unit. i.e. they must either move directly towards or directly away from the unit that is facing them. This is to represent a unit being unwilling to show its flank to the enemy and therefore moving in such a way so as to reduce this risk.

The Zone of Control shown for Red Force B4

In the above example we can see that the Zone of Control of the Red unit extends outwards at a 45 degree angle from its front base edge and includes the Blue unit Brigade 1. Blue Brigade 1 will have to finish all movements facing towards the red unit and it can only move directly towards or directly away from the Red unit.

In this example, the red unit will also be in the blue units zone of control and so will also have to act in the same manner.

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Writing a Wargame – Unit Movement

FACTORS ALREADY DECIDED – From previous posts

FactorValuePost
Scale1:5300Writing a Wargame – Part II
Base RepresentationBattalionWriting a Wargame – Part I
Base Width40mmWriting a Wargame – Part II
Real Time Equivalent for Single Turn10 MinutesWriting a Wargame – Part III
Actions Per Unit5Writing a Wargame – Part III
Factors already decided

So I realise at the end of my last post I said that we’d be looking at formations and their affect on movement, however I’m actually going to bottom out the movement of different units.

INFANTRY BASE MOVEMENT

We established that infantry would march at 5 cm every 5 minutes (apart from the Austrians who move a little further, but I believe we’ll handle this separately later on in our rules when we look at individual factions). This would mean over the course of a turn an infantry unit would march 10 cm in good conditions (i.e. along a road), but we didn’t look at different ground conditions or terrain.

Before we go into that, let’s look at the quick march for the different nations as well and how fast their rates were:

march-rates-table
Taken from https://rodwargaming.wordpress.com/miltary-historical-research/military-historical-research/napoleonic-infantry-march-rates/ with thanks.

So if we scaled down the quick step rates of the nations we arrive at the following distances over 10 minutes:

NationQuick Step (Paces per Minute)10 Mins @ 1:5300 Scale Distance
British10815.53 cm
French10014.38 cm
Prussian10815.53 cm
Austrian 1805 Regs12017.25 cm
Austrian 1807 Regs10515.10 cm
Russian11015.82 cm
Quick Step March Rates by Nation

Most nations are similar at around 110 paces per minute, apart from the Austrian 1807 regs which were at an increased 120 paces per minute. If we then break this down into 5 actions we have the following distance per action (2 minutes):

Nation1 Turn DistancePer Action (Turn divided by 5)
British15.53 cm3.11 cm
French14.38 cm2.88 cm
Prussian15.53 cm3.11 cm
Austrian 1805 Regs17.25 cm3.45 cm
Austrian 1807 Regs15.10 cm3.02 cm
Russian15.82 cm3.16 cm
Turn distance divided by Actions in a turn

This results in a fairly uniform 3 cm per action. Now we’ve calculated the Infantry March and Quick Step paces we have the following movement distances for infantry per action (rounded):

UnitMarchQuick Step
Infantry2cm3cm
Unit movements

We also have double time to consider if we go back to my favourite source of Rod’s Wargaming we’ll see that under the quickest step troops would move at around 120 paces per minute, however this was primarily used for wheeling and allowing companies to catch up to its unit after passing obstacles etc:

Chiefly to the purpose of wheeling. also in this time should division [companies] double, and move up, when passing obstacles in line, or when in a column of march the front of division is increased or diminshed“.

The Dundas regulations (The British Regulations during Napoleonic times) also state:

A company or division may occasionally run, a battalion may sometimes Quick Step, but the hurrying of a large column or of a body of moving in front [presumably the latter is a reference to line] will certainly produce confusion and disorder. It is never to be risked when an enemy is in presence though it may sometimes be necessary when a post or situation is to be seizes“.

This is an interesting point, battalions and division would run, but only under Quick Step, but also, the would NEVER run in proximity to the enemy. This is something we’ll have to take account of in our rules. This may mean that battalions are unable to Quick Step within a certain distance of the enemy.

In summary of foot troop movement, we have the most common Ordinary Step, used in the majority of circumstances. The Quick Step which was used, but never near enemy units and the Double Time, which was only used during formation changes and redressing of units.

Therefore for the purpose of our game we’ll have an Ordinary Step and a Quick Step, however, the Quick Step will not be able to be used within a certain proximity to the enemy. At present we’ll say this distance is roughly 20cm until we have some kind of firmer evidence to the contrary.

CAVALRY BASE MOVEMENT

C P Escalle’s “Des marches dans les armees de Napoleon” is quoted on page 291 of Nafziger’s “Imperial Bayonets”.

French cavalry were able to move at 4,800 to 5,000 meters (3 to 3.125 miles) per hour and infantry at 3,000 to 3,500 metres (1.9 to 2.2 miles) per hour. However the Regulations provides for movements of up to 4,000 metres (2.5 miles) per hour. The real problem was artillery and other cartage which could seldom exceed 3,000 metres (1.9 miles) per hour because of bad roads. A mixed arms force would move about 3 kph (2 mph) on strategic movement.”

If we take the above information on French Cavalry movement we arrive at the following for 1:5300 scale over 10 minutes:

Distance Covered in 10 MinsAt 1:5300 Scale
Cavalry830 Metres15.72 cm
Cavalry Movement

This tells us that the Cavalry would move only slightly faster than the foot troops on the march, which makes sense when moving your forces around the countryside.

But let’s take this a bit further and look at the average speeds of horses while walking, trotting and galloping. Taking our information from Wikipedia we have the following information:

GaitDistance Covered in 10 MinsAt 1:5300 Scale
Walk1.17 kilometres22.01 cm
Trot2.17 Kilometres40.88 cm
Gallop7.33 Kilometres*138.37 cm*
*A horse cannot maintain a gallop for more than roughly 2 km

On the gallop Wikipedia tells us that a horse cannot gallop for more than 1.5 to 3 kilometres at a a time, in game terms at scale this is the equivalent of a distance if 37.73 cm across the table. Therefore we would have to limit any galloping to only 1 action choice per turn and no more (fatigue will also have to come into affect here).

If we split these movements over the five actions we have the following:

GaitFull MovementPer Action
Walk22.01 cm4.40 cm
Trot40.88 cm8.18 cm
Gallop138.37 cm27.67 cm (limited to one action)
Cavalry Movement Speeds

So if we return to our unit movement card and add the Cavalry movement per action:

UnitMarchQuick StepCharge
Infantry2cm3cm**
Cavalry4cm8cm28cm*
Unit Movements per Action
*1 Action per turn **Cannot be used within 20cm of enemy units

ARTILLERY BASE MOVEMENT

The following excerpt is taken from www.napolun-series.org

A battery would ideally move at the same speed and covered the same distance as did the troops to which it was attached. This distance could be anywhere from a few miles to 20 or 30 miles a day. When a battery moved independently, it was not limited by the movement of the troops and was thus free to cover as much ground as it could. All in all, there was not a great deal of difference in the distance travelled. Such gains as there were resulted from the absence of thousands of marching infantrymen, supply trains and other units cluttering up the roads. The battery was then able to travel without long delays due to the inevitable traffic jams caused by jostling troops.

So all in all horse artillery would move at the same pace as cavalry and foot artillery the same as infantry, this makes our movement card much simpler.

UnitMarchQuick StepCharge
Infantry/Foot Artillery2cm3cm**
Cavalry/Horse Artillery***4cm8cm28cm*
Unit Movements per Action
*1 Action per turn **Cannot be used within 20 cm of enemy units ***Horse artillery are unable to charge

COMMANDERS/ADJUTANT BASE MOVEMENT

Commanders were generally (pun intended) mounted, so this makes our movement for such troops easier. Commanders will mostly be staying with the units, and at present I imagine commanders will give some kind of morale/combat benefit to nearby battalions.

Adjutants were used to carry messages between generals, these will be used for changing a divisions orders which we’ll get into at a later date.

FINALISED UNIT MOVEMENT CARD (PER ACTION)

UnitMarchQuick StepCharge
Infantry2 cm3 cm**
Foot Artillery2 cm3 cm**
Cavalry4 cm8 cm28 cm*
Horse Artillery4 cm8 cm
Generals4 cm8 cm
Adjutants4 cm8 cm
Unit movement card
*1 Action per turn **Cannot be used within 20 cm of enemy units

Looking at the above I believe that this will eventually be condensed to just two lines; Foot and Mounted, and then broken down across the different terrain types.

TERRAIN

In terms of terrain, I think this can be broken down into a number of classifications:

Open
Rough
Difficult
Terrain types

These could then be broken down further into woods, villages, rivers etc each with their own rules. But for now lets look at the effects that terrain may have on the movement. We will also have impassable terrain features such as ridge lines etc, but for now we’ll stick to the three above which would affect troop movement speeds.

OPEN

As it sounds, gentle rolling hills and open land with no real obstables. Here though we may also have Roads, moving along roads should give a bonus to movement or at least no detriment to the movement value of a unit. As a result, we can’t affect our units ability to move through these areas too much, so maybe we should look at movement along the road as a bonus.

Roads, are fairly narrow in comparison to a battalion or cavalry squadron so to get the benefit of moving along a road, the unit would have to be in column formation, otherwise their would be no benefit as those marching in formation off the road would essentially be moving in open ground and would have to still redress ranks after trees, boulders etc.

Therefore we should give a benefit to moving along a road as perhaps +1 cm of movement for a whole move along the road.

i.e. The 48th Regiment of Foot are in column formation and start the turn on a road. Their usual movement per action would be either 2 cm in their standard March or 3 cm in their quickstep. As they are on the road, their movement would now be 3 cm for a March and 4 cm for their quickstep, as long as they finished that actions movement still in contact with the road.

This would have more of a benefit to foot troops than mounted, however mounted troops I believe would travel at a similar pace as to when in open ground due to not having to redress their ranks as much. Therefore I’m willing at this stage to keep the benefit of +1 cm along a road section for mounted troops as well. Should anyone find information that means we should revisit this, please let me know and provide me any links that you can.

ROUGH

Let’s look at how other rules sets deal with rough terrain.

Marechal d’Empire (Polemos) – In Marechal D’Empire (MdE) rough terrain has the affect of limiting all troop movements to 2 base widths (BW), troop movement in MdE is based on the number of bases in a force rather than the type of unit. So a smaller force of 2 BW’s can move 3 BW, a force of 3 BW’s can move 2 BW anything larger than 3 base widths moves at 1 BW. I believe that MdE is looking at this from the approach that larger forces are harder to keep dressed hence the need to moe slower for larger forces. But unless a unit is a column of 2 base widths the rough terrain has little affect on a unit. Breaking down their rules you would move through the rough terrain in either a 2 BW column (while losing a BW of movement) or form into a 3 BW column. Anything wider would reduce your movement by 50%.

Blucher – This set of rules does not consider anything rough terrain, you either have open or difficult.

Le Grand Armee – In this set, using an action for passing through difficult terrain will add a disruption marker to the unit. This does have its appeal, suggesting that once a unit is outside of the terrain it would have to pause to remove the disruption (redress its ranks) before continuing.

So as you can see there are a number of ways we can treat rough terrain. Currently I’m considering rough terrain to have a % movement discount on units for moving through it (in order for them to keep their formations in shape). Whether this is correct, is up for debate.

Using one of my favourite sources RodWargaming we have the following paragraph:

The Dundas regulations therefore see no need for troops to slow down when crossing rough ground or advancing through woods and battalions do not have to stop to reform after negotiating such obstacles provided they were originally moving in Ordinary Time.

This would suggest that movement through rough terrain did not affect the troops if they were marching at Ordinary Time.

We also have the following to consider:

Close Order was prescribed for firing (so that the second rank muskets could protrude beyond the front ranks) and Open Order would seem to have been used for movement. This reflects the fact that the men in the rear ranks need some clear space in front of them. It also helps to prevent them tripping over casualties in the front rank. As soon as the battalion turns right or left this space is reduced to 22″ per man. It is clearly impractical for soldiers to march any great distance this close to the man in front,

So the formation for marching would also have to be open order, with closed order reserved for firing lines. This will be useful when we come to analyse formations a later date.

So my suggestion is that rough terrain would have no effect on troop movement provided those troops were in open order and marching at ordinary pace. Therefore we would assumer that the quick step would not be able to make its full movement in rough terrain and would be reduced to the same as the March. This gives us the following movement card:

Unit TypeTerrainMarchQuick StepCharge
FootOpen2 cm3 cm**
MountedOpen4 cm8 cm28 cm*
FootRough2 cm2 cm
MountedRough4 cm6 cm
Unit Movement Card
*1 Action per turn **Cannot be used within 20 cm of enemy units

I do think that mounted troops may have been able to travel a little faster but we’ll consider this further. Should we split the difference and say that mounted troops cannot charge in rough terrain and there movement is reduced by 2 cm on the quick step, bringing it to 6 cm instead? This sounds more reasonable to me, but I would love to know everyone’s thoughts.

DIFFICULT

Difficult terrain would be such things as steep slopes, dense woodland, gulches etc. In all cases the movement of units would be seriously hampered. My first thoughts are that Cavalry would be unable to move into difficult terrain at all, while foot troops would suffer a 50% modifier to their movement rate.

At this point I imagine skirmishers would be able to move through terrain without penalty, but we’ll cover skirmishing formations at a later date.

So let’s look at our completed movement card:

Unit TypeTerrainMarchQuick StepCharge
FootOpen2 cm3 cm*
MountedOpen4 cm8 cm28 cm**
FootRough2 cm
MountedRough4 cm6 cm
FootDifficult1 cm
MountedDifficult
Troop Movement Card
*Cannot be used within 20 cm of enemy units **1 Action per turn

POINTS TO CONSIDER

  1. Mounted troops moving through rough terrain, should this be the same as their standard march move or should we set this at another value say half way between the march and the quick step rates, meaning a move of 6 cm per action in rough terrain instead of 8 cm?
  2. Fatigue, we still haven’t covered fatigue as yet, but we should consider fatigue on troops marching at the double.
  3. Skirmish troops, we’ve not yet looked at these but I would imagine that while skirmishing troops movements would not be inhibited in either rough or difficult terrain?
  4. Should difficult terrain be a 50% modifier?
  5. We’ll revisit our base sizes following John’s comments on Part II.
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