Casualty Rates

Having done a few test games now the casualty rates of the battles seems a little off. So to get to a more realistic casualties per hit ratio I’m going to go through some battles and show the casualties and their percentage against the starting number of men in that battle. From here we can then tweak our hit numbers as testing continues to make them more realistic.

BattleArmyStarting StrengthCasualties% Killed or Wounded
CorunnaBritish16,0009005.6%
CorunnaFrench16,0007004.4%
MarengoFrench24,0004,70019.6%
MarengoAustria31,0006,00019.3%
TalaveraFrench46,1007,40016.0%
TalaveraAnglo-Spanish55,6007,50013.5%
AusterlitzFrench75,0008,30011.1%
AusterlitzRusso-Austrian95,00016,00016.8%
BorodinoFrench190,00040,00021.1%
BorodinoRussian160,00045,00028.1%
WaterlooFrench73,00019,00026.0%
WaterlooCoalition118,00024,00020.3%
Jena-AuerstadtFrench66,00012,00018.2%
Jena-AuerstadtPrussian117,00041,00035.0%
LeipzigFrench195,00038,00019.5%
LeipzigCoalition365,00054,00014.8%
BailénFrench24,4003,00012.5%
BailénSpanish30,0001,0003.3%
WagramFrench172,00040,00023.3%
WagramAustrian173,00041,30023.9%
TOTAL2,042,100409,80020.1%
Casualty Rates from Various Battles

From the table above we can see that casualties would equate to roughly 20% of an armies strength, which we can then use in our games in the future. The next step is to establish how many hits are made during an average game, so that the 20% can be spread out across these to give a more representational figure of the number of casualties.

There’s a lot more work to do on this via play testing, but it should yield fairly accurate results for those wanting to re-fight and compare to historical engagements.

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Cavalry Fleeing

Following on from yesterdays post regarding Infantry movement rate when fleeing, it seemed only sensible to continue the thought process with Cavalry.

A QUICK REVISIT TO INFANTRY FLEEING

Before I do however, I wanted to a very good point that was made on Reddit by u/Db102 who reminded me that the infantry would be carrying their kit and also their shoes would not be designed for the individuals wearing them. To see his comment please click here.

For that reason I feel it would be sensible to reduce the fleeing rate of foot troops further to 5 cm to take in the reasoning that u/Db102 stated in his comments. This would mean that Infantry have the potential to flee 25 cm per turn instead of 30cm. However, I may well do some further research on this yet to find any more information.

CAVALRY FLEEING

I believe that ideally the fleeing rate for Cavalry should be between their quick pace (trot) and their charge (Gallop), so I’m going to use another horse gait that I’ve not yet used, the canter.

While the gallop is a full tilt run across unbroken ground at roughly at roughly 25-30mph and the trot is at roughly 8mph, the canter comes nicely between those rates at between 10-17mph.

So if we take somewhere around the middle of this pace and use 14mph as a start, how does that equate as a distance over ten minutes?

SpeedDistance in 10 Minutes (14/6)
14 mph2.33 Miles
Canter Distance in 10 Minutes

Next we need to work out how far this would be in our 1:5300 scale:

DistanceIn MetresAt 1:5300 Scale
2.33 Miles3754.3370.83 cm
Canter Distance in 10 Minutes at Scale

So a horse at a canter would cover 71 cm of the gaming table in one turn of our game. But we also need this broken down into actions like we did with Infantry fleeing:

Distance in 10 MinutesPer Action (Divided by 5)
71 cm14.2 cm
Distance per Action

Which brings us to 14 cm per action, but again we have to account for the kit and the man that the horse would be carrying, so let’s use the same method that we used for the Infantry rate at the beginning of this post and reduce it by a sixth.

Per ActionReduced by One Sixth
14.2 cm11.83 cm
Per Action

There we have it, as scientific as we can get without any in depth analysis of the kit that each troop wore and the types of horses used etc.

The Cavalry fleeing distance will be set at 12 cm per action.

As always I’d love to hear your feedback.

SOURCE

Wikipedia – Horse Gaits

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Infantry Fleeing

So far I’ve used the quick march rate as a fleeing distance for infantry, but I want something a little more scientific rather than just plucking a figure out of the air.

Therefore I have been researching across various websites to try and find an average running speed for humans. So where better to go to that RunnersWorld.com.

On the article I’ve linked you can see that based on 300 million uploads to the Strata App the average running pace for a man running the mile was 9 minutes 15 seconds. So that seems to be a good place to start. Let’s convert this into our scale:

1 Mile Time1 Mile in Metres1 Mile at Scale (1:5300)
9:15 (555 Secs)1,60930.36 cm
Running the Mile

Now we need to establish how far they would run in 10 minutes (1 turn):

DistanceDivided by Seconds (555)Times by 600 Seconds (10 mins)
30.36 cm0.05 cm32.82 cm
Distance in 10 minutes

Next I’d like to break this down into individual 2 minute actions:

Distance in 10 minutesDivided by 5 Actions
32.82 cm6.564 cm
Distance in 2 Minutes

Not exactly a nice round figure, however if we make this 6 cm per action we have a running distance of 30 cm in 10 minutes. Which considering the extra kit that men would be carrying seems reasonable.

THE RULES

So when a unit breaks, following a loss in combat or failing a morale test they would run 6 cm per action. This would form its reaction. For example:

Red Forces Brigade closes to within 2 cm of Blue Forces Brigade on its 3rd Action and unleashes a deadly volley at close range. Once the damage has been calculated Blue takes its morale test as normal for its reaction and fails by more than 2, it therefore flees 6 cm for its reaction directly away from the Red Brigade ending its reaction facing away from the enemy. The Red Forces in its 4th Action pass a morale and advance on Blue Brigade. Blue Brigade once more fails a morale test ad flees 6 cm. On the fifth action Red Forces are now 12 cm away from Blue and choose to hold. When it comes to Blue forces turn, they can attempt to rally at the start of the turn, otherwise they would flee 30 cm (5 actions).

I’ve removed a test every action once a broken unit is outside of 10 cm of the enemy and replaced this with a single test. However i’m willing to consider having a unit test 5 times after each action if people feel that’s a more realistic option.

Let me know your thoughts.

Peter

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Small Game Test 2 – Video

As promised I’ve uploaded a video of the small game test I carried out over the weekend.

One disclaimer, is that I got many of my own rules wrong along the way! Such as fleeing distances and limbering/unlimbering artillery. Just goes to show even the rules writers can’t know all their own rules…..

Let me know your thoughts on the video. I have plans to replicate a small historic battle next, once I do I will also share that via the website.

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